Acids and Alkalis

Lemon juice and vinegar have a sour taste as they are weak acids. An acid is a substance that dissolves in water to form positively charged particles called hydrogen ions (H+). The opposite of an acid is an alkali, which dissolves in water to form negatively charged ions of hydrogen and oxygen, called hydroxide ions (OH). Alkali “anti-acid”, because they tend to cancel acidity. For example, the base to control the acidity in the mouth toothpaste that will lead otherwise damage the teeth.

pH scale : The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution is known as its pH. Scientific measuring acidity and alkalinity using a pH scale. A solution on the pH scale, low pH of 7 is an alkaline solution with acidic, and a pH greater than 7. With a pH of 7, the water at neutral. A solution’s pH can be tested with universal indicator solution or paper, which changes colour in acids and alkalis.

ph-scale Strong acids : The more hydrogen ions an acid forms in water, the stronger it is, and the low its pH. Are very dangerous strong acid such as sulfuric acid and nitric acid and must handle them carefully.
sulphuric-acid Sulphuric acid : Concentrated sulphuric acid will dehydrate (remove water from any substance with which it comes into contact. For example, acid dehydrated to leave the mass of black carbon, sugar, dehydrated carbohydrates.
Nitric acid : Organic materials, the fact es paper, cork, rubber, fabric and skin, are rapidly decomposed by nitric acid. Acid is so corrosive as it comes in contact with the oxidizing (oxygen supply) of any material.
svante-arrheniusSvante Arrhenius : Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius (1859–1927) received praise for his research on how compounds form ions in solution. This work has made them realize that the hydrogen ions which have their special qualities acid.
Acids and metals : Even the weak acid can not be stored in metal containers because the acid is corrosive to most metals. When an acid reacts with a metal, then closed the hydrogen gas and the metal dissolves in acid to make a compound called a salt. React very violently with metals such quite strongly with metals such as sodium and potassium, and the like magnesium and zinc.

Salts : Hydrogen in an acid is replaced by a metal during a chemical reaction, is formed by a salt called a neutral compound. For example, when copper reacts with nitric acid, it takes the place of hydrogen to form nitrate of copper salt. Like other metals, copper forms a variety of sal when mixed with different acids Most salts are crystals and many are coloured. Some salts, like sodium chloride (common salt), occur naturally.

acids industryAcid industry : Is widely used by the acid in the industry because they react so readily with other materials. For example, sulphuric acid is used in the production of dyes and pigments, artificial fibres, plastic, soaps, and explosives. Acid is formed by a reaction by sulfur and oxygen.
Acid rain : At home and in the air from burning fossil fuels to produce energy for use in industry polluting gases released. Gas clouds in a broad dissolved nitric acid and sulfuric acid in water. This water falls as acid rain, which erodes stone buildings and statues, kills trees and aquatic life, and reduces the soil’s fertility.

Bases and alkalis : Vinegar (ethanoic acid) is the acidity can be neutralized or canceled by adding chalk (calcium carbonate). Any substance which is called the base does neutralize the acidity, such as chalk. Alkali strength is measured by the number of formed hydroxide ions in water. Strong alkalis, such as sodium hydroxide, are just as corrosive as strong acids.

soaps and detergentsSoaps and Detergents : They are good at dissolving alkalis, oils and oils, so they are widely used in the manufacture of soaps and detergents. This TSD of dirt then pots skin, chlothes, and oily food. It is not difficult to remove dirt with oily water, es water and oil. Soaps and detergents, the fact that we have a hand liquid, breaks the oil into small drops and the water washes away the dirt.
oil slicksOil slicks : Accident with oil tankers at sea can create huge oil slicks (spillages) on the water’s surface. Use detergent called Disprsents breaking oil and to reduce environmental damage. Wildlife experts also use detergents, such as washing-up liquid, to clean the feathers of oil-coated seabirds. If birds take wing – which can usually keep them warm and dry – becomes filled with oil, so birds can lose their buoyancy and sinking, or exposed to cold.
batteriesBatteries : Acids, alkalis and salts electrolytes, Which Means wattle They Hey conducting electricity in Solution. Batteries Hey An electrolyte – Between TWO Rods and Plates Called An electrode – usually in the form of a moist paste or liquid. The Most common batteries this a dry cell, Which Uses Salt ammonium chloride Es were electrolyte. Long-term batteries include alkaline electrolytes, The fact Es potassium hydroxide; Car batteries are electrolytes of sulfuric acid.
Alkali industry : The main raw material for alkali industry saline (salt water). Sodium hydroxide, which is produced by soap and is used to make paper, electrolysis of brine (power pass) through it. Brine will absorb the carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate, which is used in making use fabric treatment, photography and glass.

Neutralizing acids : A base and an acid is a reaction to a neutral salt. In addition, hydroxide ions (OH) in the alkali combine with the acid hydrogen ions (H) to produce water (H2O). In daily life, problems of unwanted acidity are solved by adding an alkali of the appropriate strength.

soil aciditySoil acidity : The pH of soil varies from area to area. Are well-developed crops in highly acidic soil, because acids are not essential for the healthy development of the plants which dissolved the important minerals and washed them. Farmers tend to spread lime (calcium oxide) on their farms to treat acidic soil. This is a cheaply produced alkali made from limestone. It neutralizes the acid in the soil, so it is becoming more fertile.
Curing indigestion : The human stomach uses hydrochloric acid to break down food. Some foods make much acid your stomach that makes you uncomfortable. Stomach powder or indigestion tablets can cure this. They are weak bases which neutralize the acidity, but too much response with no damage to your stomach, or acid.
bee-and-waspBee and wasp stings : The sting of the bee is painful because it is acidic. Weak base, such as treating the sting with bicarbonate of soap or soda, to neutralize the acid gives relief from pain. In contrast, a wasp that stings alkaline, so it can be neutralized by a weak acid, such as vinegar or lemon juice.
fritz-haberFritz Haber : In 1908, the German chemist Fritz Haber (1868-1934) developed a process for making the alkali ammonia, which is used to make fertilizers and explosives. Haber process nitrogen response from air with hydrogen at high pressure and temperature. Haber later devised a way of making nitric acid by heating ammonia in air.
Timeline :
  • c.6600 BC The Phoenicians use alkaline wood ash to make soap
  • 11th century AD Arab chemists make sulphuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acid.
  • 1780s World’s first sulphuric acid factory opens in France.
  • 1865 Ernest Solvay, Belgian chemist, develops the first commercially successful process for making the alkali, sodium carbonate, on a large scale.
  • 1887 Svante Arrhenius proposes that it is hydrogen ions that give acids their special properties.
  • 1908 Fritz Haber invent a process for making ammonia.
  • 1909 The Danish chemist Soren Sorensen (1868-1939) devises the pH scale.
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