Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar was a British general and the Roman ruler of the world. He is one of the most famous, and controversial figures in history. He changed the Roman world, the Rome area expanded in Gaul and suppressed several revolts. He was a good administrator, the Roman calendar and an improvement in Roman law and to strengthen the government of the Republic. Caesar was a great writer and author. But he could be unscrupulous in pursuit of his own interests, and made many enemies during his career.

Triumvirate : In 60 BC the years leading rival politicians compete to gain power. Order was restored when Caesar, the financier Marcus Crassus, and the army commander Pompey set up a three-man committee, or triumvirate, to rule Rome. In 59 BC, the triumvirate allowed Caesar to be elected consul, one of the two magistrates who held supreme power. As consul. Caesar strengthened and reformed the government.

pompey Pompey : Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (106-48 BC), known in English as Pompey, was a Roman general who conquered Palestine and Syria, and did much to get rid of opposition to Roman rule in Spain and Sicily. Although he was a member of the triumvirate and he married Caesar’s daughter, he was always Caesar’s rival.
caesar-juliusEarly life : Caesar was born in Rome in about 100 BC. A rich family, he had a successful military and political career, which was growing to become Pontifex Maximus, or High Priest in 64 BC through the various offices. In 61 BC he became Governor of Further Spain, one of the most important jobs in the Roman republic.
gallic-warsGallic wars : From 58-50 BC, Caesar waged a series of wars which led to the incorporation of Gaul (modern France and Belgium) into the Roman republic. Caesar displayed great military ability in the Gallic Wars, and was ruthless with, any tribe who tried to resist conquest. Caesar recorded his achievements in his famous memoirs of the campaign.
Civil war : After the death of Crassus in 53 BC, rivalry between Caesar and Pompey reached new heights. Pompey became sole consul in 52 BC and, with the support of the Roman senate (parliament), declared Caesar an enemy of the people. In 49 BC, Caesar crossed the Rubicon, the river dividing Italy from Gaul, and marched on Rome in triumph. In 48 BC he defeated Pompey. By 45 BC, Caesar had removed all opposition, becoming master of the Roman world. caesar-crosses-the-rubicon

Pharsalus : Caesar showed his military skills when in 48 BC, he defeated the much larger army of Pompey near the Greek town of Pharsalus. Caesar’s strategic sense and better location enabled his small force to overwhelm Pompey’s army, which was routed. Pompey himself fled to Egypt, where he died.

antony-and-cleopatra Cleopatra : Caesar followed Pompey to Egypt and remained in the country after Pompey’s death. He befriended and lived with Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, and helped establish her firmly on the throne. When Caesar returned to Rome in 47 BC, Cleopatra came with him. After Caesar’s death, the Egyptian queen had twin sons with the Roman soldier and politician Mark Antony (c.82–30 BC).
Dictator : 45 BC, Caesar was appointed dictator for life. He improved living conditions of the Roman people by improving passing new agriculture laws and housing. He also made the republic more secure from its enemies.
assassination-of-caesar Assassination : Despite his reforms, Caesar’s dictatorial rule made him enemies in Rome. On 15 March 44 BC – the Ides of March Caesar was stabbed to death in the senate house by rival senators, including Cassius and Brutus. But his work lived on in his great-nephew and adopted son, Octavian, who became emperor.
  • c. 100 BC Born in Rome,
  • 80 BC First military service in Turkey.
  • 60 BC Forms triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey.
  • 59 BC Elected consul.
  • 58-50 BC Conquers Gaul.
  • 50 BC Roman senate declares him an enemy of the people.
  • 49 BC Starts civil war against Pompey.
  • 48 BC Defeats Pompey and follows him to Egypt.
  • 44 BC Assassinated in the senate in Rome by rival senators.

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